教師話語在英語課堂教學中的支架作用_英語論文.doc
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教師話語在英語課堂教學中的支架作用_英語論文

Teacher Talk As a Scaffold in EFL Classroom Teaching

摘要

“建構主義學習理論”指出學習是在教師的引導下通過課堂師生互動主動建構意義的過程,二語習得理論也強調了師生互動不可替代的作用。由此可見,在外語教學中交互式課堂更加有利于學習者英語學習的過程。教師話語(包括提問和反饋)作為實現互動最重要的途徑,在外語教學中的作用日益受到重視,對課堂教學具有不可或缺的潛在功能。教師在英語課堂上通過有效的教師話語搭建腳手架實現師生互動,促進英語學習的過程。在實際教學過程中學習者英語習得的過程深受教師話語的影響。然而,當今英語課堂教師話語在實現課堂師生互動的有效性這個方面和理想有一定的差距,盡管教師從理論上來說了解支架教學模式,但沒有真正運用于課堂實踐來提高課堂教學效率。教師應當充分認識到支架教學作為一種教學手段的寶貴價值,利用其對教師話語對學習者英語學習過程的建構作用,分析學習者的特點及其對支架教學的需求并據此積極反思教師話語在日常教學實踐中所存在的問題,從而利用更為有效的教師話語,給予學習者更為適當的支架作用,最終促進學習者的英語學習。

關鍵詞:二語習得;英語教學;教師話語; 支架式教學; 課堂互動 

Abstract

Constructivism learning theory points out that learning is an active process of constructing meaning involving teacher-student classroom interaction guided by teachers. Also, second language acquisition theory emphasizes the irreplaceable role of classroom interaction. Thus, in EFL classroom it is much more conducive for EFL learners who are involved in interactive classroom teaching to promote their EFL learning. Teacher talk, including questioning and feedback, as the most important means to realize interaction is attached great importance day by day and has indispensable potential functions in EFL classroom. Effective teacher talk instructed by teachers in class can provide scaffoldings aiming at realizing classroom interaction and promoting learners’ English learning process. Teacher talk has deep impacts on the efficiency of English learning process in practical classroom teaching. Nevertheless, there is a gap between reality and ideality from the view of realizing teacher-student interaction. Even though many teachers have a basic understanding of scaffolding instruction in a theoretical view, it isn’t made practical use in EFL classroom to improve language teaching efficiency. Scaffolding instruction is supposed to be highly valued as a teaching method, with whose constructive functions of EFL learners’ language acquisition teachers should seriously analyze learners’ characteristics and needs and according to them positively have reflections on the problematic issues in teachers’ actual classroom teaching. Therefore, more effective teacher talk should be made the most to provide needed scaffoldings for learners , ultimately contributing to learners’ EFL acquisition.

Key words: second language acquisition; EFL teaching; teacher talk; scaffolding instruction; interactive teaching

Contents

Introduction 1

1.Basic understanding of second language acquisition 2

1.1 The nature of second language acquisition 2

1.2 The role of interaction in second language acquisition 4

2.Positive effect of teacher talk on classroom interaction 4

2.1 Teacher talk playing multiple roles in EFL teaching 5

2.2 Teacher talk facilitating learners’ language learning process 5

2.2.1 Scaffolding learning process from the constructivist view 6

2.2.2 Promoting classroom interaction with authentic language 7

2.3 Applying effective teacher talk to maximizing learners’ potential 8

2.3.1 Teacher talk as linguistic scaffoldings 9

2.3.2 Teacher talk as communicative scaffoldings 10

3. Problems with teacher talk in current EFL teaching 11

3.1 Imbalance between TTT and STT 12

3.2 Absence or near absence of interaction 12

3.3 “False” interaction 14

3.4 Overemphasis on the forms of learners’ output 15

4. Specific suggestions to improve teacher talk to facilitate EFL learning 16

4.1 Asking proper questions and giving suitable feedback 16

4.2 Making a major shift of teacher’s role from lecturers to facilitators 17

4.3 Creating an appropriate context for authentic communication 17

4.4 Building a supportive community to lower affective filters 18

Conclusion 18

References 20




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