基于語料庫的希拉里和特朗普競選語言特點研究_英語論文
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基于語料庫的希拉里和特朗普競選語言特點研究_英語論文

A Corpus-based Study on Language Features of Hillary Clinton’s and Donald Trump's Speeches in American Presidential Election

摘要

縱觀美國200 多年的歷史,美國總統競選無疑是政治文化生活中濃墨重彩的一筆,而總統大選則是美國總統政治生涯的第一步。近些年來,許多國內外研究學者都關注到了美國總統競選中語言風格的個人化及其所表征的美國文化與政治趨勢,并進行了一系列的深入研究。在新媒體的推動下,2016美國總統大選關注度更高,兩位候選人希拉里和特朗普競選語言風格迥異并各具特色。兩位的語言不僅體現了個人魅力,也代表了不同黨派對美國及世界政務的不同態度。本文擬從語料庫語言學角度出發,對2016年美國總統大選候選人希拉里和特朗普的電視大選演講轉寫文本進行分析總結,歸納出二人各自的語言風格,并試圖從語言上發現美國當下的熱點問題和不同政黨的執政觀點和方案。

本研究根據語料庫建庫原則進行了自建語料庫CCTS, CCS以及CTS,并在此基礎上發現2016美國大選中的熱點問題為競選結果、就業、醫療、外交、恐怖主義。并且發現希拉里·克林頓傾向于使用簡單詞、名詞和排比句;而唐納德·特朗普則更多的用簡單詞、形容詞和評價。兩人語言風格的相似處在于詞長、人稱代詞的選擇和語言中的關鍵詞,尤其是前三個關鍵詞。兩人風格的不同集中于對動詞、形容詞、詞語搭配的不同選擇。克林頓偏愛使用動詞抒發意見,勾勒藍圖,較少使用形容詞;特朗普則除了表達意見外,也會選擇動詞來提出并解釋實際的處理辦法,較多的使用形容詞。本文的詞語搭配研究以people為例,發現希拉里傾向于搭配特定人群,如勞動人民或年輕人;特朗普則是面向大眾,如全體人民或美國人民。

這種基于語料庫的研究以其真實的語言數據、嚴格的設計標準和獨特的分析模式表現出較傳統方法明顯的優勢,利用計算機語料庫提取和分析語言素材,避免了研究者的主觀性和片面性。

關鍵詞:語料庫語言學;美國總統競選;政治語篇;語言風格

Abstract

Throughout the 200-year history of America, American Presidential Election, the first step of a presidency, is an indispensable part of American cultural and political life. In recent years, many domestic scholars have noticed the individualization of language features which may stand for a candidate’s political trends in the campaign and conducted lots of relevant researches. Driven by new media, 2016 U.S. Presidential Election attracted more attention than ever. Two candidates, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, have completely different language features which embody their personal charm and attitudes towards world issues. This paper analyzes and summarizes their language features based on corpus linguistics and attempts to find hot issues in the campaign and political viewpoints respectively in different parties.

Three corpora, CCTS, CCS and CTS, were built to research the language features of the two candidates, and Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump separately. Based on the analysis, hot issues discussed in the campaign are the result of the election, jobs, health care, diplomacy and terrorism. Hillary Clinton tends to use simple words, nouns and parallel sentences; while Donald Trump prefers simple words, adjectives and comments. The similarities between them are word length, choices of personal pronouns and top key words, especially top three. The differences are choices of verbs, adjectives and collocations. Hillary Clinton uses verbs to illustrate her ideas or blueprints with fewer adjectives. Donald Trump, except expressing opinions, chooses verbs to put forward his actions with more adjectives. This paper takes the collocation of people as an example. It could be found that Hillary tends to match adjectives targeting specific groups of people like working people and young people; while Trump mostly faces to all the citizens like the people and American people.

This study, based on Corpus Linguistics, researches on the authentic language data, scientific design and unique analyzing pattern, and provide a more objective result.

Keywords: Corpus Linguistics; American Presidential Election; Political Text; Language Features

Contents

I. Introduction 1

II. Literature Review 3

2.1 Definition of Corpus and Corpus Linguistics 3

2.2 Basic Elements in the Application of Corpus 4

2.3 Discourse Analysis 4

2.4. Presidential Speech Analysis at Home and Abroad 5

III. Methodology 7

3.1 Establishment of CCTS, CCS and CTS 7

3.2 Size 7

3.3 Analytical Tools 9

3.4 Research Questions 10

IV. Data Analysis and Discussion 11

4.1 Overall Statistical Properties and Analysis of CCTS 11

4.1.1 Word Length 11

4.1.2 Word Frequency 13

4.1.3 Studies on Personal Pronouns 16

4.1.3.1 I and My 16

4.1.3.2 We and Our 17

4.1.4 Studies on Auxiliary Verbs 18

4.1.5 Studies on Key Words 19

4.2 Overall Statistical Properties and Analysis of CCS 22

4.2.1 Word Length 22

4.2.2 Word Frequency 23

4.2.3 Key Words 25

4.3 Overall Statistical Properties and Analysis of CTS 26

4.3.1 Word Length 26

4.3.2 Word Frequency 27

4.3.3 Key Words 29

4.4 Comparison between CCS and CTS 30

4.4.1 Similarities 30

4.4.2 Differences 32

V. Conclusion 34

Bibliography 36


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